The spread of Human Immunodefiency Virus ( HIV ) and Aquired Immunodefiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) has been quickly increasing for decennaries and is a debatable disease impacting much of the universe ‘s population today. An country of high debatable emphasis is Africa where 1000s of people become freshly infected while 1000s of others die daily.
I have been affiliated with Plan Canada for approximately six months, patronizing a kid in Africa whose unequal life conditions leave him in a province of terrible emotional, economical, and societal depression. My specific patron kid lives in a community where HIV/AIDS has struck the bulk of the population.
Although I am patronizing a kid straight covering with HIV/AIDS, I still experience blinded to the subject, as I recognize my life here in Canada is rather priviledged, seldom holding to cover or hear of such dejecting state of affairss. Due to this, I have become interested in the planetary response to HIV/AIDS, every bit good as international intercessions and how they have impacted lives within Africa. In this paper, I will reason that international intercession and the planetary response to the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa is non positively, nor significantly, impacting the epidemic adequately. The rate that the assistance is being recieved is far excessively slow in comparing to the rate at which the infective disease is distributing. Most significantly, nevertheless, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is impacting the development of Africa, deminishing any attempts that the continent puts Forth. By trusting on corporations such as the International Monteary Fund ( IMF ) and the Workd Bank, whose motivations are extremely questionable and frankly doing affairs worse, the continent and many of the states within have a big dependence on the West as their foreign debt continues to lift, farther curtailing their absolute potency to independently develop.
Harmonizing to Anup Shah ( 2009:4 ) , there are 33.4 million persons within Africa populating with HIV, 2.7 million persons that get freshly infected every twelvemonth, and another 2 million deceases ensuing from AIDS. Approximately 70 % of the deceases in 2008 were in Sub-Saharan Africa, a part that has over two tierces of grownup HIV instances and 90 % of new HIV infections amongst kids ( Shah 2009:4 ) . AIDS affects different segements of different societies in many ways, some countries exposing more devestation than others due to poorer economic, societal and political subjugation. However, this epidemic has become so prevelant in the bulk of African parts that it is hard to nail which state displays the most suffering. In order to successfully turn out the thesis of this paper, a assortment of African states will be analyzed.
CORRUPTTION IN LEADERSHIP:
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa has been recognized as a primary cause of the many disadvantages that the continent faces. The place of authorities elites drastically contributes to the spread of this disease. Harmonizing to Anup Shah ( 2009:7 ) , as states within Africa move towards a more democratic office, they are able to pay off forgein debts that old unelected absolutisms frequently failed to make. Most of the money spent is non being put into bettering the wellness attention programs within the state, and alternatively are allocated to parts of the economic system that have less precedence. Evidence of this is shown in Botswana, ranked first for HIV prevalence harmonizing to Oliveira ( N.D:1 ) ; and in South Africa, which is ranked 5th ( ibid ) . Both South Africa and Botswanna are two of the richest states in Africa and the universe ( Aneki 2010 ) , hence proposing that being a propserous state while holding one of the highest HIV prevalance rates would actuate authorities functionaries to apportion more of their one-year income towards health care. Despite this sensible premise, South Africa merely spends about 9 % of their one-year budget on health care ( Ocular Economics 2010 ) , while in Botswana, merely 2 % of one-year household income is allocated to wellness ( Encyclopedia of the Nations 2011 ) .
Leaderships such as President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa long denied that AIDS resulted from HIV ( Shah 2009:11 ) . He proclaimed that “ HIV is non the cause of AIDS, and that anti-retroviral drugs are non utile for patients ” ( Shah, 2009:12 ) , proposing that the disease was non in any manner a important factor in the downswing of the economic system and possibly a noteable ground why such a low dollar value was put towards the health care structures. Public indignation and international force per unit areas caused the admittance that there was a job ( ibid ) . If Mbeki had recognized his errors and the job of HIV/AIDS before, South Africa would hold gained entree to quicker assistance and more media attending, therefore taking to a success narrative as was for one of the universe ‘s poorest states – Senegal.
United Nations AIDS ( UNAIDS ) reports that Senegal ‘s success layed in the responsibilty of leaders who recognized the job in progress. UNAIDS continues to describe that non all states within Africa are every bit fortunate to recieve the aid they need despite acknowledging the job of HIV/AIDS since bar plans in Africa merely reach 1 in 5 people ( Shah 2009:21 ) . The solution to actively distributing the plans are left in the custodies of internationalisms: “ This is a job with a solution… They [ the state ‘s of Africa ] are being helped by the turning impulse of international political leading ” ( Shah 2009: 25 ) . Through this solution every bit good as Senegal ‘s success narrative, it is apparent that international donours have tried to assist undertake the job of HIV/AIDS in Africa. However, with the narratives of many other states such as South Africa and Botswana, it besides becomes apparent that there are still states in Africa that are overlooked and obstructions that the international community must acknowledge. This limbo proves the slow and insufficiency of international response and planetary assistance.
The leaders denial of the being of the spread outing disease merely posed as a farther job since their deficiency of recognition had a ripple affect into the West. The burdened state of affairs in Sub-Saharan Africa, for illustration, was merely headlined in the United States ‘ intelligence once it was declared a National Security menace ( Shah 2009:40 ) . It was merely expressed to the American society because of opportunism and concern, non because states within Sub-Sahara like Botswana and South Africa were in demand of aid. Most Western media mercantile establishments are considered to be the best beginning of universe intelligence, yet what is being covered seems driven by the precedences of the rich states, non by the existent events around the universe that need acknowledgment ( ibid ) . The deficient media coverage merely shows the precedences of the West, and that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is non at the top of their list.
By 1990, the Western states recognized that the AIDS epidemic was no longer a menace, therefore farther minimising media attending and early intercession ( ibid:42 ) . “ Tie the demands of the hapless with the frights of the rich. When the rich lose their fright, they are non willing to put in the jobs of the hapless, ” suggests Gellman ( 2000:1 ) . The reaction from the West that finally took topographic point was far excessively late, coercing them into quick, bounce recovery when assisting Africa, and making so with questionable purposes.
International RESPONSE: THE ROLES OF LEADING ORGANIZATIONS
Shah ( 2009: 31 ) farther notes that international givers have tried to turn to the HIV/AIDS job, but due to their slow response they tend to come across more obstructions than successes. The Global Fund to contend AIDS, TB and Malaria was created in 2001 at the demand of UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan ( ibid ) . This Global Fund unluckily suffered from hapless support, slow distributon of medical specialty, every bit good as political obstructions that stemmed from richer states, such as the United States ( US ) who would instead hold their ain establishments and plans that would let for more control over the disbursement of financess ( ibid:31-32 ) . This created concern that the disbursement determinations are political instead than representative of good purposes to better Africa’a wellness systems through agencies of bar, contraceptive method, and instruction of the disease. The United States ‘ attack when commanding the money has been criticized by many organisations including the international HIV and AIDS charity, AVERT ( ibid:33 ) . They argue that the US takes assorted political, societal, and economic point of views that exploit assorted states ; states that they do n’t experience are suited to derive their support. Avert points that the
… US [ avoids ] back uping states perceived to be hostile ( a political stance ) , or those who may back up
plans it presently does non like-such as abortion and rubber usage during the Bush Administration ( a
social/religious stance ) , or usage of generic drugs that are cheaper than the 1s from their pharmaceutical
companies ( an economic stance ) ” ( ibid ) .
Who and where fiscal assistance is provided to is strictly self-determined, proposing that assistance is non adequately being received or distributed. On top of this Western prejudice, loans that have been offered by Western intercessions to turn to the issue, such as the loans provided by the Export-Import Bank of the United States, have been declined due to the fact that they would merely foster the dependence and debt for African Countries ( ibid:51 ) . The relationship between poorness and hapless wellness became good established through this dependence one time African authoritiess became clients of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) .
It is appropriate to look at the Structural Adjustment Policies that have been implimented by the World Bank and IMF to foster elaborate on the questionable purposes of coporations associated with HIV/AIDS. Richard Parker ( 2002:11 ) expands on the function of political relations of international heatlh, saying that the Structural Adjustment Policies driven by the World Bank have resulted in decreased disbursement for wellness attention and instruction in Africa. Established as a portion of the Bretton Woods Conference following World War 2, the World bank has been the most wide-reaching and powerful international development bureau in the universe ( ibid ) . In 2001 entirely, this bureau gave a sum of $ 7.1 billion that went toward the HIV/AIDS epidemic ( ibid ) . As of import as this has been, states who have accepted loans from the World Bank must re-pay them with involvement as per established policy, therefore supplying Africa with small or no room for development, particularly in states like Swaziland ( graded tierce for HIV prevalance in Africa harmonizing to Oliveira N.D:1 ) and Botswana whose mean rate of growing of GDP is falling by 1.5 % per twelvemonth, therefore go forthing small to no excess disbursement on wellness attention ( Dixon, McDonald, Roberts 2002:2 ) . These loans are being controlled and distributed on the footings of the bureau. In add-on, since there is involvement collectible on the loans the fiscal assistance being received does non favorably impact the disease every bit much as it would if the assistance was donated ( Parker 2002:11 ) . The loans that the World Bank are supplying is thereby increasing the international debt to the developing states who are already forced to end product important parts of their one-year Gross National Products ( GNP ) in order to refund bing debt promises ( Parker 2002:5 ) .
The distribution of these loans, furthermore, are deficient as they lack precedence. A big part of the loan, as the World Bank ab initio promised, should be segregated for the battle against HIV/AIDS, nevertheless the distribution is skewed and money is being displaced to countries of less importance, such a the military: 13.8 % of one-year budget goes towards military in Morocco, while merely 4.8 % goes towards health care ( Ocular Economics 2010 ) . While military outgo is surely of import for the protection of a state like Morocco, it still falls short to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Prevention against this unwellness, even if the state ‘s prevalance rate is low, should be addressed foremost and first before its septic Numberss farther addition. This skewed position is now impacting more than merely foreign debt, as the deficiency of equal response to the HIV and AIDS crisis means that the rates of those infected and deceasing are still lifting when the initial end is to minimise this.
Limited ACCESS TO MEDICATION: Pharmaceutical COMPANIES AND THEIR ROLE
Although there have been multiple organisations reacting to the deficiency of entree to antiretrovial therapy that minimizes the figure of deceases due to AIDS, much of the aid merely treats a nominal figure of persons. The World Health Organization ( WHO ) and United Nations plan for AIDS ( UNAIDS ) intended to handle three million people by 2005 ( De Cock, Marum, and Mbori-Ngahca 2003:1 ) . Even at this rate of intervention the impact on the epidemic is considered minimum. De Cock et Al. ( 2003:3-4 ) argue that the proper manner of turn toing this epidemic is through deriving voluntary knowlegde of the badness of HIV/AIDS, every bit good as recommending attention that emphasizes societal and economical rights, including the right to intervention. These constabularies should travel beyond the distribtion of medicine, and alternatively should be accredited by jurisprudence, a chief end for public wellness, and be non-discriminatory nor invasive ( De Cock et Al. 2003:4 ) .
However, the actions of transnational pharmaceutical companies and their lobbying attempts have shown that by utilizing generic versions of expensive drugs to handle AIDS in Africa, they are more disquieted for their ain net incomes than the desperate passs of African states ( Shah 2009: 51 ) . On July 19, 2000, the Export-Import Bank of the United States offered one billion dollars per twelvemonth for five old ages in loans to states in Sub-Saharan Africa including Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho ( Shah 2009:51 ) . This loan was to assist finance the purchase of HIV/AIDS medicines and related equipment and services from the US pharmaceutical houses. Three specific Sub-saharan African states, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, rejected the offer because the loans would foster their debt, merely profiting the American pharmaceutical corporations ( ibid ) . The Oxfam Press ( 2007 ) went every bit far as impeaching some corporations such as the Export-Import Bank of lending to human rights misdemeanors by seeking to forestall entree to the needed drugs:
Because it refuses to set the issue at the bosom of its concern theoretical account… The industry is neglecting to do the
systematic alterations needed to function developing state markets and run into its duty to do
medical specialties universally available. Public force per unit area will escalate if companies continue to offer merely patchy
grants, for illustration about high profile diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria ( 1 ) .
Presently, treatmets are expensive and are largely low-cost to the weathier people in western states such as the US and Canada ; the poorer people within African states, every bit good as those from industrial parts, are those that fall vicitim the most ( Shah 2009:52 ) . However, while the argument continues over how to administer drugs at an low-cost cost and as pharmaceutical companies work viguriously to happen less expensive remedies bar is still non being advertised:
What might be overlooked, nevertheless, as vital drugs become available, is the fact that bar is
still by far the more compassionate and more cost-efficient reply. Prevention does non replace intervention,
but it does cut down the figure of people whose lives will depend on expensive drugs with important side
effects ( Shah 2009:56 ) .
MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND THE ECONOMY
The Economic Theory predicts that HIV/AIDS reduces labour due to the increased mortality, which correlates with a lessening in productiveness ( Dixon, McDonald and Roberts 2002:3 ) . The loss of accomplishment and decreased production has resulted in a decrease of exports and an addition in imports of merchandise and services needed, particularly in respects to expensive wellness attention and antiretroviral medicines ( Dixon et al. 2002:3 ) . This is a immense developmental job, as the increased imports without equal exports means that the state is passing more than they are doing, in bend cut downing the GDP of their state. This farther restricts their possible to turn economically as both a state and continent. The effects of HIV/AIDS on GDP per capita has already reduced Africa ‘s economic growing rates by 2-4 % ( ibid ) . The deficiency of international response and fiscal assistance puts these developing states in an economic quandary that is negative at big and foils the full thought of bettering health care by to boot cut downing health care financess.
Sydney Rosen and Jonathon L. Simon ( 2003 ) discuss transnational corporations and their committedness to contending the world-wide epidemic of HIV/AIDS. Rosen and Simon ( 2003:1 ) province that transnational corporations such as Coca-Cola have instigated “ action programs against AIDS ” , but these tend to dominate other of import tendencies, such as the current economic diminution. By attemping to reassign the AIDS load, corporations are excepting those who are unable to work and are outsourcing employees from other states ( Rosen and Simon 2003:2 ) . International development policies have been known to hold a high correlativity with the exclusion of these socioeconomic constructions such as employment which contributes to the asceticism of the epidemic in Africa ( Parker and Easton 2000:7 ) . This full procedure is impacting economic growing and alternatively of incorporating those infected and repairing the job of the epidemic corporations and single authoritiess are merely disregarding the fact that it exists.
Overall, it is clear that the epidemic of HIV and AIDS in Africa is a prevalent job that needs sufficient resources in order to better. The subjects outlined thoughout this paper suggests that sufficient resources are missing. Intervention does non take topographic point at a gait that would relieve any jobs, and Western associations are merely doing affairs worse by blindly puting ‘loans ‘ and fiscal assistance in parts of less priroriy. Each state has its ain prevelance rate, degree of devestation, and economic diminution happening. The agony is huge amongst all parts and the statistics of one state versus another can non hold whether the epidemic is worse than the other. If HIV/AIDS exists even in minimum Numberss, the affects of the disease will decline if merely at leisure response continues. The affair of fact is that the epidemic is at a point where it has about become irreversable. Global assistance has proven to be unequal and undistinguished in many of its parts, and their chief intercession narratives are questionable. The job of HIV and AIDS is non a job that is unheard of, yet it ‘s rate of economic, political and societal development of the Continent is put on a arrest and is continually undermined by planetary response squads and the full international community.
DEAR SIAHRA: please note that I am a mac user and when I save my paper as a Document, arranging mistakes occur. I am non certain if this lone shows on my computing machine, or if it will on yours excessively. If it does, delight note that I am cognizant of theses mistakes but am unable/unsure how to repair them even after mutliple attempts. More specifically, the long quotation mark on page 10 I realize should be individual spaced, every bit good as the excess big infinite between my “ Conclusion ” subheading and paragraph should non be every bit big as it is. These arranging mistakes merely occur in the last subdivision of my paper. Due to these mistakes it is doing my paper travel beyond the page upper limit ( onto page 12 ) , and therefore my mention page begins on page 13 where it should be, and would hold been provided the spacing mistakes did non happen ; on page 12. I apologize for this and I hope that it does non act upon the overall grade of my paper ( an electronic mail was besides sent to further clarify ) . Thankss!