CHAPTER ONE 1. 0 Introduction A decade ago, there have been noticing an increase on awareness of sexual harassment at workplace, since the rising of sexual harassment practice at workplace. The rise of sexual harassment begun as females enters the workforce.
A research conducted at UK, shows that around 60% of females at work and 90% of female undergraduates experiences sexual harassment (Wilson, 1995) Despite that, there are many cases of female who do not report on sexual harassment (Davidson and Cooper, 1993; Kingsmill, 1989) Known that workplace have become “home” for most working class, in terms of hours spent in a day, it’s now significant to create an encouraging environment for male and female employees.
Therefore, any forms of unhealthy behavior which intimidates the well being of employees should be avoid due to any circumstances which will interrupt the employees performance at an organization. The violence between male towards female at workplace is the most violent act (Walby, 1986). In addition ,this violent act has course an increase level of awareness compare to office romances (Barton & Eichelberger, 1994). The relationship between men and women at workplace at times should be comprehended because it is nature that human goes into relationship.
However, employees should understand that romance and harassment are issues at place of work which is significant to the environment. For the upcoming sections, the author provides a detailed literature review by defining sexual harassment according to previous studies, history of sexual harassment, sexual harassment in workplace, sexual harassment in Malaysian workplace and its types and also workplace policy which consist of two part; Unwritten policy and Strict Written Policy.
Furthermore, the author shares the research methodology with sample demographics, questions from the survey, and an interview was conducted. The author concludes the research with conclusion and recommendation for future work. 1. 1 Background of study Sexual harassment arises in all workplace, holistically when it favors one gender. For instance there has been a survey which concludes that 96 per cent of women get harassed at a majority male workplace compare to 48 per cent of non male majority workplace (LEEDS TURIC, 1983) Trade Union and Community Resource and Information Centre .
Research done by (DiTomaso, 1989) shows that woman done feel comfortable working with an environment full with males. Not forgetting that there are cases where men suffers from sexual harassment (Townsend & Luthar, 1995). In addition, women intentionally harass men when their working environment are female oriented (Pringle, 1989). According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the United States (EEOC), the complaints of males getting harassed have been increase from 481 complaints to 1500 complaints within 3 years.
In addition, despite harassment of men by women, or women by men there are also homosexual harassment, workers by customers and even third-party harassment nowadays. (Laxman, Som, Saat, Low; 2000) The Malaysian Human Resource Ministry established the Code of Practice, an Eradication of sexual harassment in 1999. The reason behind this is for employers to establish a helping hand for employees to handle any sort of sexual harassment at workplace.
Furthermore it is also used as a protection for an individual’s self-respect at workplace. (HRM, 1999) includes initiatives of a policy statement; For instance, stated in the policy statement are the definition of sexual harassment, complaint’s procedure, rules and regulations of workplace, consequence against harasser, false allegation, protective ways for victim and comprehension programs for company policy to bring up the awareness of sexual harassment and its consequences of workers at the workplace. 1. 2 Significant of Research
In today’s context, workforce requires both male and female to work closer. So, organizations should ensure if the workers have reasonable level of awareness on sexual harassment, knowledge about types of situations and also knowledge on policy of respective workplace. Thus organization needs to get in place of the predominant situations of sexual harassment existed today to secure workplace from sexual harassment. 1. 3 RESEARCH TOPIC: SEXUAL HARASSMENT: A CASE STUDY ON A SMALL FIRM IN MALAYSIA 1. 4 RESEARCH QUESTION:
Are Employees acquainted with their workplace environment and its policies? 1. 5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: 1. To determine the types of sexual harassment predominantly found in a small firm. 2. To determine the level of sexual harassment awareness between male and female. 3. To analyze the adequacy of companies policy towards sexual harassment environment and employees. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 History The behaviors of sexual harassment occurred since humans first came to earth stated by many authors. ILO, 2001) Nowadays, as sexual harassment has become a global phenomenon, issues have been cropping up. This would not have happen twenty-five years ago when sexual harassment was known as a global phenomenon which had no legal term and there was no preferable word to express it, where sexual harassment was repulsive (Mackinnon, 1979) Sexual harassment’s term was primarily used in the 1980s. Since then, sexual harassment issues have been recognized throughout the world into cultural and occupational context (ILO, 2001) . 2 Defining Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment has defined in many ways by different authors. According to (Heathfield, 2000), sexual harassment means requesting for sexual favors, unwanted sexual advance, and also further verbal or physical behavior of sexual nature. However (Chaundhuri, 2006) argued that sexual harassment is either fun at workplace, men appreciating women or just flirting. At the same time, (York, 1989) said that sexual harassment is based on an individual’s thought on others behavior.
In addition, he said that others may feel that it is disturbing while one feels it as a common flirting. Moreover (Smolensky & Kleiner, 1995) (Hollenbeck et al. , 2003) & (Greer, 2001) differentiate sexual harassment as quid pro quo and hostile environment which are the types of behavior. Quid pro quo means a person whom either unspoken or spoken makes sexual request in change of desire, such as raise or sale. For example, an employer gives a promotion to his employees and in return he demands sexual request.
Meanwhile, hostile environment means an environment which occurs when people in the environment fells discomfort when a person says something to someone which has sexual meaning in it. For instance, a male describes a female in his own sexual terms to his friend. This would create a hostile environment or an abusive environment to the surrounding people. 2. 3 Sexual harassment in the workplace Numerous researches proves women are more prone towards being harassed than men (Blakely et al. , 1995), (Cartar et al. 1996), (Gutek et al. , 1990), (Wiener & Hurt, 2000) Furthermore on studies, there are at least half of all US women and about 15 per cent of men will be sexually harassed along their career (Gutek, 1985). Moreover, research have confirm that approximately 50 per cent of women are the recipients of one or more forms of sexual harassment on the job(Fitzgerald, 1993 & Gruber, 1990), adversely impacting career success and job satisfaction of women (Scheineider et al, 1997) 2. 4 Sexual Harassment at Malaysian workplace and its Types
At Malaysian workplace, the current trend is evolving as women have been entering the workforce since the year 2000. The number of women entering has been increasing as almost half of Malaysian women are economically active (Ismail & Lee, 2005) in regard to that, sexual harassment problems have become a serious problem in Malaysia. In fact compare to the rates from the United States, it does not differ too much where between thirty-five percent (35%) and fifty-three percent (53%) of women have experienced sexual harassment at workplace (Ng et al. 2003), (Marican, 1999), Muzaffar, 1999) This has totally increase sexual harassment awareness in the workplace where this problem must deal with cautious to preserve the working environment as decent as possible. Sexual harassment in Malaysia has become strict ever since the Code of Practice and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in the workplace was established by Human Resource Ministry in 1999. (HRM, 1999) It has been a guideline for employees, employers, trade unions and other parties in order to protect the dignity of mankind at work (Laxman et al. 2005) However, currently there is no act regarding sexual harassment in workplace although the Human Resource Ministry have enact a few regulations which later was defy by the Malaysian Employers Federation (MEF, 2000) Examining the nature of sexual harassment consist of; types of sexual harassment, duration of sexual harassment, who the harassers and where it happens (AHRC, 2008) According to (HRM, 1999; Laxman et al. , 2005) types of sexual harassment are spoken, unspoken and physical act which have been enact in Code of Conduct of Practice and Eradication of Sexual Harassment in Workplace.
Recent surveys show that respondents experienced one-off incident on harassment. In regard to that, in 2003 there were fifteen percent (15%) of respondents compare to the year 2008 where it has increase to thirty-nine percent (39%) (AHRC, 2008) It is significant to test unwanted behavior because it is subjective; perception, feelings and reactions of the victim and therefore not the intentions of the harasser (Laxman et al. , 2005) 2. 5 Workplace Policies (Kremer & Marks, 1992) bring into being; those workplaces with sexual harassment policies are more prone towards sexual harassment cases. Gruber & Smith, 1995) came to notice that those women worked in companies which have a handful of policies are most possibly to report the harassment rather than ignoring it compare to women who work in an organization which sexual harassment policy does not exist. (Laxman et al. , 2005) employers have to provide a safe working environment for employee. Therefore, (HRM, 1999) stated that employers should implement policy guidelines on voluntary basis to gain a mechanism in order to manage problems of sexual harassment at the workplace.
A survey done by (SHRM, 1998) which says 72% of respondents whom have been surveyed does not have written policies at their workplace meanwhile 70% of the respondents company do not legalize romance between a supervisor and subordinate. In addition to that, 19% of respondents say that their policies urged employees to be prohibited from romance between department members and lastly 15% detailed that those who involve in relationships have to inform their supervisors. 2. 6 Strict Written policies & Informal Unwritten Policy
According to (Alderman, 1995) in most states if employees are warned about their company policies or policies being adopted by company for a long time, than company have the rights to ban any relationship of employees. Nevertheless district federal courts have neglected charges against conduct of privacy based on employer’s awareness on employees, however the courts have implied that if observation is involve on sexual activities, than privacy of laws will be taken into consideration (Massengill & Petersen, 1995). SHRM, 1998) survey finds only 4% of employers that don’t involve policies on sexual harassment subsequently ignorant towards sexual harassment policies. Based on (SHRM, 1998) 14% of its survey shows that their employer understands about the sexual harassment policy but lack on written policy. Employers with this understanding basically discourages on employees to date each other. In addition, senior staffs are more aware than junior employees based on sexual harassment policies. 2. 7 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Level of Awareness-IV
Sexual Harassment-DV IV DV Level of awareness as the independent variable and sexual harassment in workplace environment as the dependent variable is the framework used by the author to assist in this research. Research objectives will be determine and analyzed by using this framework. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research Methods The author used two types of research methods for this project; primary and secondary methods. Below will be the details of each of these methods. 3. 2 Secondary Data
The data’s which are collected via existing sources or published data are called secondary data (Cooper & Schindler 2008) Secondary data which have been using by author will be internet journals and articles on previous studies on sexual harassment from Emerald, Proquest, Ebscohost and other internet webpage’s. Furthermore wide reading on magazines, articles and journals from newspaper was important to gain fresh information. 3. 3 Primary Data The data’s which are gathered at the actual place is called primary data (Maylor & Blackmon, 2005) As for primary data the author will be using questionnaires for the majority of the research.
The reason questionnaires is chosen by the author because it helps to gain data easily and the information gathered are simple to understand. Structured interview was used in this research as a mode to gather information about company policy from the employer. 3. 4 Questionnaires Questionnaires are consisting 22 questions which were designed into three parts. Below is the designed structure of questionnaire which will be used to gather information; Section A: Demographics Section B: Types of Sexual harassment Section C: Level of Awareness Section A
The author designs the necessary demographic questions for Section-A which suites the research. The author uses nominal scale (YES/NO). Demographics consist of 7 questions. Section B The author took 7 questions out of 21 item questions for Section-B which describes the situation involve sexual harassment based on the questions derived from the (DEOC, 1995). These 7 items were then grouped into two different categories such as (Crude/Offensive Behavior and Unwanted Sexual Attention) the author uses interval scale in the form of 5-likert scale Never-1, Once/Twice-2, Sometimes-3, Often-4, and Very Often-5). Section C Questions on Level of awareness were gathered by the author using an eight-item test questions designed by (Littler Mendelson Consulting Firm, 2008). Questions using nominal scale (YES/NO). In this area, there will be 8 questions tested on the level of awareness. Level of awareness was calculated by dividing the scores into 4 groups. (Poucher, 2001) used this method at which the level of awareness on an individual group was calculated through mean level of awareness.
For example; adding total number of points then dividing the total number of respondents in the particular group. Furthermore, the same method was approached by (Mooneeramsing et al, 2005) for the case of level of awareness against the side effects of caffeine by using calculation of percentile and mean. Therefore by using percentile and mean calculation, both this method could be used to determine the level of awareness. A total of 40 questionnaires were given to the employees of Company X.
These questionnaires are consisting of: Section A- Demographics (Gender, Ethnicity, Age, Marital Status, Academic Qualification, Occupational Position, and Sexual Harassment Policy) Section B- Types of Sexual Harassment the author have used two categories which are (crude offensive behavior and unwanted sexual attention) Section C- Level of Awareness are based on 3 question types which are 1. Determination of Sexual Harassment-(Examples of Sexual Harassment) 2. Supervisors reaction and their liability towards sexual complaints-(Giving advice on Sexual Harassment) 3.
Code of Practice on Sexual Harassment- (Definition of Sexual Harassment) 3. 5 Interview The structured interview extracted from (Policy Statement On Current Issues in Sexual Harassment, 1990) and further modified by the author was conducted through a face to face interview. The author interviewed the Managing Director of Company X on the 26th March 2010. The author was focusing mainly on Company X sexual harassment policies and its employees. Interview questions will be based on company policies towards sexual harassment, responsibility on employer towards harassment by supervisor, employer’s esponsibilities if policies does not been practiced, important elements of a complaint procedure, sexual harassment policies in the company, circumstances of sexual harassment, issue that should be handle if misinterpretation of policies and employers prevention on sexual harassment at workplace. 3. 6 Sample Methods The sample method used for this research was based on questionnaires given due to the knowledge and awareness of the employees of Company X. The targeted population is mainly on all employees of Company X. The population of employees of Company X would be a total of 40 employees.
All 40 employees with various job positions in Company X have participated in this survey. Convenience sampling was used for this research. The reason being is because this sampling suite the author’s respondent as the chosen respondents are based on the population of Company X. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0 ANALYSIS OF DATA 4. 1 Introduction This research is conducted to carry an understanding on sexual harassment at workplace in a small firm. The author will analyze this chapter based on the objectives of this research. The author has conducted two different data collection, a questionnaire and an interview.
The following would be the objectives of the research which has been analyzed. Firstly, to determining the nature of sexual harassment at workplace wherein the author has chosen to determine the types of sexual harassment found at workplace. Furthermore, the author has determined the level of awareness between male and female and finally to analyze the adequacy of company policy towards sexual harassment and employees. 4. 2RESPONDENTS BACKGROUND 4. 2. 1 Table: 1(GENDER OF RESPONDENTS) Gender Statistics NValid40 Missing0 Mean1. 30 Median1. 00 Mode1 4. 2. 2 Table: 2 (FREQUENCY OF GENDER) Gender
FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent ValidMALE2870. 070. 070. 0 FEMALE1230. 030. 0100. 0 Total40100. 0100. 0 The table above shows that the amount of respondents taken part in this survey. The amount of male was 28 respondents with percentage of 70% of the total where else females were 12 which are 30% of the total respondents. A total of 40 respondents participated in the survey. 4. 2. 3 Table: 3(ETHNICITY OF RESPONDENTS) Ethnicity FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent ValidMALAY1537. 537. 537. 5 CHINESE1230. 030. 067. 5 INDIAN1127. 527. 595. 0 OTHERS25. 05. 0100. 0 Total40100. 100. 0 Ethnicity of the respondents was segregated into Malay, Chinese, Indian and Others. The amount of respondents who ethnic was Malays are 15 respondents which is 37. 5% of the total respondents, where else Chinese were 12 respondents with the percentage of 30% of the total respondents , the amount of Indian respondents were 11 and others were 3 with the percentile of 27. 5% and 5% out of total respondents. 4. 2. 4 Table: 4(AGE OF RESPONDENTS) Age FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid18-281332. 532. 532. 5 29-391640. 040. 072. 5 40-50922. 522. 595. 0 51 AND ABOVE25. 05. 100. 0 Total40100. 0100. 0 The above table shows that most of the employees at Company X are aged between 29-39 with 40% of respondents, followed by 18-28 with 32. 5% of respondents, 40-50 with 22. 5% of respondents and 51 above with 5% of respondents. Table: 5 (Shown in the appendices) Occupational Position Most of the respondents are floor workers and lower level management with a 37. 5% for each, following by 15% of technicians and 10% of middle level management Table: 6 (Shown in the appendices) Academic Qualification The total amount of respondents within Company X are 30% with SPM, 7. % with STPM, 32. 5% with Diploma, 22. 5% with Bachelor’s Degree and 7. 5% with Master’s Degree. 4. 3 COMPANY POLICY ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT 4. 3. 1 Table: 7(COMPANY POLICY) FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent ValidYES922. 522. 522. 5 NO1127. 527. 550. 0 DON’T KNOW2050. 050. 0100. 0 Total40100. 0100. 0 It is important of an organization to provide company policy on sexual harassment as it will be a guideline for the employees at workplace. The table below shows the results of the analysis. The above table shows that 50% of the respondents don’t know about the company policy, 27. % have answered No where else 22. 5% have answered Yes. Most of the respondents don’t know about the company policy. 4. 3. 2 Table: 8(GENDER & COMPANY POLICY CROSS TABULATION) COMPANY POLICYTotal YESNODON’T KNOW GENDERMALECount681428 % within GENDER21. 4%28. 6%50. 0%100. 0% % of Total15. 0%20. 0%35. 0%70. 0% FEMALECount33612 % within GENDER25. 0%25. 0%50. 0%100. 0% % of Total7. 5%7. 5%15. 0%30. 0% TotalCount9112040 % within GENDER22. 5%27. 5%50. 0%100. 0% % of Total22. 5%27. 5%50. 0%100. 0% Table above shows that within Male gender there are 21. 4% respondents answered YES, 28. % answered NO and 50% answered DON’T KNOW. Meanwhile Female gender, there are 25% answered YES and NO, and 50% answered DON’T KNOW. In conclusion most of the respondents don’t know if there is a company policy. 4. 4 TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT FOUND IN A SMALL FIRM IN MALAYSIA 4. 4. 1Table: 9 (CRUDE OFFENSIVE BEHAVIOR & UNWANTED SEXUAL ATTENTION) ITEMSNeverOnce/Twice PERCENTAGE SometimesOftenVery Often CRUDE/OFENSIVE BEHAVIOR Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you6022. 51052. 5 Made gesture or body language of a sexual nature which embarrassed or offended you72. 512. 57. 7. 5 Whistled, called, or hooted at you in a sexual way7015102. 52. 5 Total UNWANTED SEXUAL ATTENTION66. 516. 29. 1752. 5 Made unwelcome attempts to draw you into a discussion of sexual matters (Attempted to discuss or comment on your sexual life)72. 5202. 55 Continued to ask you for dates, drinks, dinner, etc. ,even though you said “NO”65257. 52. 5 Made unwanted attempt to establish a romantic sexual relationship with you despite your effort to discourage it72. 5101052. 5 Made unwanted attempt to stroke, fondle, or kiss you6522. 5552. 5 Total Overall Average (Percentage)68. 4 6819. 4 17. 16. 2 7. 4. 4 4. 72. 5 2. 5 Table 9 shows the results of respondents’ experience on all of the said items. The respondents experience was measured with two type of sexual harassment behavior which was crude offensive behavior and unwanted sexual attention. The above table shows that the highest type faced by respondents in Company X is Crude Offensive Behavior which has 32. 87% of respondents have experience meanwhile 32. 5% of respondents have experience Unwanted Sexual Attention. As for the highest situation experienced by respondents is (repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you) . 4. 2Table: 10 (GENDER & Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you Cross Tabulation) Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to youTotal NEVERONCE/TWICESOMETIMESOFTENVERY OFTEN GENDERMALECount18720128 % within GENDER64. 3%25. 0%7. 1%. 0%3. 6%100. 0% % of Total45. 0%17. 5%5. 0%. 0%2. 5%70. 0% FEMALECount6222012 % within GENDER50. 0%16. 7%16. 7%16. 7%. 0%100. 0% % of Total15. 0%5. 0%5. 0%5. 0%. 0%30. 0% TotalCount24942140 % within GENDER60. 0%22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0% % of Total60. 0%22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0%
It seems to be that 50% of the female respondents have experienced sexual harassment situations compared to 32. 1% of male. It is also shown that 64. 3% males and 50% of females never experience sexual harassment situations. In detail, male has experienced once/twice sexual harassment situations about 42. 5% compared to female which is 21. 7%. Further, female have sometimes experience sexual harassment situation about 21. 7% compared to male 12. 1%. Female respondents have experienced sexual harassment situations around 21. 7% compare to male which has experienced none. Finally male have experienced 7. % compared to female which have experienced none. In conclusion repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes impacts both male and female but female still are the main recipients of this situation. 4. 4. 3 Table: 11 (ETHNICITY & Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you Cross Tabulation) Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to youTotal NEVERONCE/TWICESOMETIMESOFTENVERY OFTEN ETHNICITYMALAYCount9411015 % within ETHNICITY60. 0%26. 7%6. 7%6. 7%. 0%100. 0% % of Total22. 5%10. 0%2. 5%2. 5%. 0%37. 5% CHINESECount7221012 % within ETHNICITY58. 3%16. 7%16. 7%8. %. 0%100. 0% % of Total17. 5%5. 0%5. 0%2. 5%. 0%30. 0% INDIANCount6310111 % within ETHNICITY54. 5%27. 3%9. 1%. 0%9. 1%100. 0% % of Total15. 0%7. 5%2. 5%. 0%2. 5%27. 5% OTHERSCount200002 % within ETHNICITY100. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%100. 0% % of Total5. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%5. 0% TotalCount24942140 % within ETHNICITY60. 0%22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0% % of Total60. 0%22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0% The table of shows that the 41. 7% Malay experienced sexual harassment, Chinese experienced 40. 1%, Indians experienced 36. 4% where else others experienced none. In detail, Malay experienced once/twice about 26. %, Chinese experienced 16. 7& and Indians 27. 3%. Furthermore, Malay experienced sometimes around 6. 7%, Chinese 16. 7% and Indians 9. 1%. More, Malay often experienced at 6. 7%, Chinese experienced at 8. 3% and Indians none. Only Indian experienced very often at 9. 1%. Rounding up, repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you situation, impacts more on the Malays whom have experienced 41. 7% compare to the Chinese and Indians, whom also experience this situation in a close count. 4. 4. 4 Table: 12(AGE & Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you Cross Tabulation)
Repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to youTotal NEVERONCE/TWICESOMETIMESOFTENVERY OFTEN AGE18-28Count3442013 % within AGE23. 1%30. 8%30. 8%15. 4%. 0%100. 0% % of Total7. 5%10. 0%10. 0%5. 0%. 0%32. 5% 29-39Count13300016 % within AGE81. 3%18. 8%. 0%. 0%. 0%100. 0% % of Total32. 5%7. 5%. 0%. 0%. 0%40. 0% 40-50Count800019 % within AGE88. 9%. 0%. 0%. 0%11. 1%100. 0% % of Total20. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%2. 5%22. 5% 51 AND ABOVECount020002 % within AGE. 0%100. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%100. 0% % of Total. 0%5. 0%. 0%. 0%. 0%5. 0% TotalCount24942140 % within AGE60. 0%22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0% % of Total60. %22. 5%10. 0%5. 0%2. 5%100. 0% The above table shows that the respondent’s age between shows that (18-28) has the most experience on sexual harassment situation. As conclusion, most of respondents aged (18-28) tend to experience (repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you) Table: 12(Appendices) Cross Tabulation between company policy and repeatedly told sexual stories or jokes that were offensive to you. This table shows that 33. 3% who experience sexual harassment are aware of the policy meanwhile 56. 4 answered No and 35% answered Don’t Know. 4. 5 LEVEL OF AWARENESS . 5. 1 Table: 13 (GENDER & LEVEL OF AWARENESS CROSS TABULATION) Gender & Level of AwarenessTotal CORRECT ANSWERINCORRECT ANSWER GENDERMALE % within GENDER50. 8%49. 2%100. 0% Total Questions114110224 FEMALE % within GENDER35. 4%64. 6%100. 0% Total Questions346296 Total 261440 % within GENDER43. 1%56. 9%100. 0% Total Correct & Incorrect Questions148172320 Table above shows that the amount of questions answered by both male and female. Male have correctly answered a total of 114 questions which is 50. 8% of the total percentage and incorrect questions a total of 110 with a percentage of 49. 2%.
Meanwhile female have answered 34 questions in total with a percentage of 35. 4% and incorrect answer of 62 questions which is 64. 6% of the total percentage. The total of correct and incorrect answers is 148 and 172 questions. In conclusion, female have answered a total of 35. 4% correctly compare to male 50. 8%. This shows that female level of awareness are low based on the questions extracted from (Littler Mendelson Consulting Firm, 2008) 4. 5. 2 Table: 14(SCORE TABLE) Number of Questions Answered correctlyScoreLevel Of AwarenessPercentage of respondents 225%Very Low50% 450%Low25% 675%Medium15% 100%High10% The total figure of the correct answers given by all respondents was collected to analyze the level of awareness on sexual harassment. The table above shows the results of the analysis. Most of the respondents were either categorized as very low or low which cumulates to (75%) of respondents meanwhile (25%) of respondents were either medium or high on their level of awareness on sexual harassment. Further analyses were done to determine the scores for each question. The questions were later segregated into 3 categories; 1- Definition of sexual harassment as per Code of Practice; – Determination of sexual harassment and; 3- Supervisor’s reaction and liability in relation to sexual complaints. 4. 5. 3 Table: 15(QUESTIONS ANALYSES) Group Correct answer Wrong answer Definition of sexual harassment as provided by the Code of Practice Q3 35% 65% Determination of sexual harassment Q1: (examples of sexual harassment) (25%) (75%) Q8 (examples of sexual harassment) (65%) (35%) Overall 45% 55% Supervisor reaction and their liability owards a sexual complaint Q2 (giving advise on sexual harassment) (30%) (70%) Q7 (giving advise on sexual harassment) (70%) (30%) Q5 (action supervisor needs to take) (52. 5%) (47. 5%) Q4 (determine supervisor liability) (42. 5%) (57. 5%) Q6 (determine supervisor liability) (62. 5%) (37. 5%) Overall51. 5% 48. 5% Overall 48% 52% This table is to determine whether which questions are more aware by respondents. Definition of sexual harassment as provided by the Code of practice, Q3) there are 35% of respondents whom got it correct. Where else, (determination of sexual harassment, Q1 and Q8) there are 45% in total whom were aware of it. Finally (supervisor reaction and their liability towards a complaint procedure Q2, Q7, Q5, Q4, Q6) has 51. 5% correct answers. 70% of respondents got Q7 correct, while only 25 % answered Q1 correctly. Respondents are more aware on questions (giving advice on sexual harassment) rather than getting to know the (examples of sexual harassment).
In conclusion, respondents are aware of how to handle a situation rather than knowing about sexual harassment at workplace. Hence, this also concludes that the reason being of a very low level of sexual harassment with a percentage of 75% of the respondents whom answered correctly. 4. 6 INTERVIEW FINDINGS The author has interviewed Mr. Kerupagaran on the 26th of March 2010 at a (KEC) Klang Executive Club. The main objective of the interview is to come across the adequacy of Company X’s policy and towards sexual harassment at workplace. In this interview the author has input 7 questions based on the company policy and its employees.
Based on the first question the author was curios about whether Company X has policies which look up to Sexual Harassment at workplace and will it affect the level of awareness on employees towards sexual harassment at workplace. Nevertheless, Mr. Kerupagaran uttered that his company policy has clauses on sexual harassment and its employees. Furthermore he has elaborated on the contents of the policy; what is sexual harassment, the procedures to lodge a report and also outcomes of the harasser. Despite having policies, there is not much of implementation on it. Yes, I am aware that it will affect the mployees level of awareness, I am still trying to get things right, he added. Next, the author has questioned about employer’s legal responsible for its supervisor’s harassment if the employee failed to used the employer’s complaint procedure. Here, Mr. Keerubakaran argues that if the harassment which occurred is a harsh one, which eventually disturbs employee mentally, than it is acceptable. Nevertheless, Mr. Kerupagaran has to judge his employee reasonably based on his/her reaction towards the compliant procedure. For the third question, the author has question Mr. Kerupagaran on the important elements of a complaint procedure.
Where he agrees that it’s important for every employee to learn and adopt the procedure because it will be an advantage for them. Following with the fourth question, the author has question about the adequacy of the complaint procedure on employees to report harassment direct to his/her supervisor. Mr. Kerupagaran has not supported this question; because he believes that if the supervisor was the one committing harassment that it will carry a discomfort on the employee. Realizing this, he had amend his policy by switching the person in-charge every month, which this will beat the probability of the issue.
Further, the fifth question was on how will harassment affect employees? And what will be the action taken? Mr. Kerupagaran stressed that, based on his experience in a small firm for 20 years; he has deliberately notice that mix gender employees mostly has different problems occurring. Most of the time emotions take place. He has also said that action taken towards both the victim and harasser is important. Where the victim would get a day off or counseling where else the harasser would probably be terminated or in a worst case scenario the police department would be rectifying the problem.
Moreover, the sixth question was about anti-harassment policy where the author was in need for suggestions. Mr. Kerupagaran again stressed that an anti-harassment policy must have no tolerance at all factors which involves sensitiveness. For instance, race, age, gender, and status of the neither victim nor harasser are sensitive issues. The final question was based on prevention and correction of harassment. Mr. Kerupagaran suggested that it is most important for employees to first understand everything about sexual harassment. The least that he could do would be sending articles or having an awareness seminar for employees.
He also said that he would rather educate his employees in meetings or gatherings because Company X is a small organization, so the amount of employees is less compared to big firms. Employer should avoid liability by establishing reasonable ways to prevent and correct harassment. CHAPTER FIVE 5. 0 CONCLUSION Besides spending time at home, most employees and employers spend time at workplace. Thus, it is significant to create a work environment. The findings of this research compute that there is significance on level of awareness towards sexual harassment in the workplace environment.
Studies have focused on two categories as suggested by the DEOC Task Force on Discrimination and Sexual Harassment, USA. The two categories are ‘Crude/Offensive behavior and Unwanted Sexual Attention. The author took both the mild forms and analyzed which behavior would be the most occurred harassment. The author has included a consistent research outcome from (Kenig & Ryan, 1986; Gutek, 1985; Gutek & O’Connor, 1995; Rotundo, Nguyen and Sackett, 2001). It was argued that men and women tend to perceive ‘milder ‘sexual harassment differently.
Therefore, experience of sexual harassment at workplace would eventually increase the level of awareness of employees towards sexual harassment at workplace environment. In addition, the author has done a cross-tabulation between gender, ethnicity and age towards the most influential mild form harassment (repeatedly told sexual stories or a joke that were offensive to you). This concludes that, 40. 1% of Malay females with the age gap of 18-28 have experienced this situation. Furthermore, the level of awareness shows that 50% of female and 32. 1% male are aware of sexual harassment at workplace.
This study shows that among all the respondents, the level of awareness was unsatisfactory. The author concludes that this could be a reason of lack of exposure on the company policy since most of the respondents have stated that they either answered No or Don’t Know in regard to the company policy. In addition it is said by Mr. Kerupagaran, Managing Director of Company X that there is a policy but there is no implementation. Thus, deliberately decreases the knowledge of employees towards on company policies and decrease the level of awareness. This eventually would decrease the awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace environment.
Studies by Zoloty (1986), Pryor (1987), Bingham (1989), Cooper (1989), Fitzgerald (1993) & Sloan (1997) have shown that by having a clear company policy, greater awareness on sexual harassment would be achieved that through clear company’s policy, greater awareness on sexual harassment and by implementing it; company would have a greater advantage by stopping the employees from being exploited hence preventing sexual harassment. Furthermore, the finding of the interview proves that the company policy is adequate towards sexual harassment policy and also its employees.
Based on the interviewee, there is a company policy which relates to sexual harassment and employees in terms of the characteristic of the policy. For instance the content of the policy; what is sexual harassment, the procedures to lodge a report and also outcomes of the harasser. The only problems faced by company X towards their policy and employees are lack of implementing policy, as, uttered by Mr. Kerupagaran. Without implementation, will affect the level of awareness of employees towards sexual harassment at workplace, he added.
Finally, the research concludes that employees are not well acquainted with the workplace environment and its company policy. 5. 1 LIMITATION OF RESEARCH Since Sexual Harassment is a sensitive topic. Respondents were not comfortable answering the questions. Due to a purpose of research taken by a student, respondents were going ease on it. Penetration of a small firm was difficult because these firms are least interested rather on any other matter than profiting their business. As for Company-X, since the company had more floor workers whom are not well educated so it was difficult to collect data.
The author had to be a translator for a handful of respondents. 5. 2 RECOMMENDATION There are many ways to reduce sexual harassment at workplace. For instance, by adopting a clear sexual harassment policy employees would be aware of the happenings at workplace. In addition employers could prevent sexual harassment by adopting an anti-harassment policy which characterized harasser’s penalties and prohibited act. Furthermore, it should state about employer’s disagreement towards harassment and potential actions taken towards harasser or employees whom fake harassment in order to revenge (Grossman, 2002).
Moreover by giving sufficient training to the employees would help them be well trained and aware of situations of sexual harassment and regards to handle them. Monitoring the workplace would be a good way to catch and correct harassment, or to watch employee’s movement and behavior towards their colleague. This is to study their characteristic or motive. Having said that workplace is the second home for many people, thus it is important to have a good atmosphere at workplace. However, there is still much to be done to improve sexual harassment environment of the workplace.
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